Diseases spoil the health and life of all living beings, whether it is a human or animal or plant or whatever includable. The term disease in human beings factually means the deviation of the body system from its normal functional state and the changes are indicated by some symptoms. Let’s discuss the diseases in humans and the list of diseases caused by virus and bacteria.
Moreover, to understand, Pathology is a branch of study that involves in analyzing the cause of a disease, the mechanics of the disease’s progression, the structural changes in the disease process and the effects of those changes.
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In The Article
Causes Of Diseases
Genes (hereditary and non-hereditary):
Disease of hereditary nature i.e. a disease that runs across generations in the family is one category.
Some diseases are acquired by an individual, only due to mutations in his/her genes due to radiation from the ultraviolet rays of the sun when the DNA copies itself, called as replication at a stage before the division of cells happens.
Some examples of genetic diseases include sickle cell anaemia, down syndrome, cystic fibrosis, Huntington’s disease, Duchenne muscular dystrophy etc.
These diseases are spread from one person to another in different ways like physical contact with infected persons, contact with an object or surface that is virus stricken, insect bites and breathing virus that spreads through the air. Flu, Tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS are a few perfect examples of communicable diseases.
These diseases do not and cannot spread from one individual to another. They are called as non-transmissible diseases. Some examples are:
- Heart Attack
Deficiency Diseases List:
Deficiency refers to the diseases caused by nutritional deficiencies. It could be due to lack of adequate protein, vitamins or minerals in the diet. Some examples are Anemia, Rickets, Goitre and Scurvy.
The nature of habits that people develop and practice and the lifestyle changes can cause certain diseases. Some examples of such diseases are obesity, stroke, heart diseases, atherosclerosis and cancer.
Diseases Of Human Body
There are several diseases that are to be classed based on the organs and the system of the human body. We shall see an overview of them.
1. Diseases Of The Circulatory System
2. Diseases Of The Nervous System And Brain
- A tension Headache
- A migraine Headache
- A sinus Headache
- Transient ischemic attack
- Multiple sclerosis
- Viral Encephalitis
3. Cancer – Organs and the body system
Types Of Body System Cancers:
- Lung cancer
- Brain cancer
- Breast cancer
- Prostate cancer
- Bone cancer
- Skin cancer
- Colorectal cancer
4. Diseases Of The Digestive System
- Crohn’s Disease
- Food Poisoning
- Gall Bladder
- Gastroesophageal Reflux
- Peptic Ulcer
5. Diseases Of The Endocrine System
6. Diseases Of Eye, Ear, nose, throat
- Allergic Rhinitis
- Otitis media
- Congestive Heart Failure
8. Diseases Of The Respiratory System
- COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder)
9. Diseases Of The Reproductive System
- Urinary Tract Infection (Women)
10. Diseases Of The Skin, Hair & Nails
Stages Of Diseases
- Terminal stage
Diseases Caused By Virus
Viruses cause various kinds of infections that affect:
- Respiratory System – The common cold that is suffered by many people is caused by a host of viruses like rhinovirus, adenovirus and coronavirus. Influenza virus infects the lungs causing pneumonia and also the upper respiratory system. The respiratory syncytial virus causes bronchiolitis, the respiratory infection that affects infants and small children. A dry cough, wheezing and rapid breathing is the symptoms of bronchiolitis.
- Digestive System – Rotavirus causes gastroenteritis in children. This leads to symptoms like nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea. Norovirus is the reason for viral gastroenteritis and its rapid spread. Viral gastroenteritis is even caused by astrovirus, adenovirus and calicivirus.
- Central Nervous System – Herpes virus, Enterovirus cause encephalitis and meningitis. Infections occur in the central nervous system also due to Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, Chickengunya virus and human parechoviruses.
Encephalitis disease is an inflammation of the brain tissue
Meningitis is the inflammation of the tissues that surround the brain and spinal cord
- Skin – Herpes simplex virus, varicella virus and human papillomaviruses are the common viruses that infect the skin.
- Varicella Virus causes chickenpox
- Human papillomavirus causes warts, the condition which can affect any portion(surface) of the skin
- Herpes simplex virus 1 causes vesicles in the mouth and lips
- Herpes simplex virus 2 causes genital herpes
- There are many other diseases that occur due to the attack of viruses. The nature of the virus and its effects are given hereunder:
- Hepatitis C – infects the liver and causes liver cancer and conditions like the transplant of liver
- HIV – Causes AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency syndrome)
- Ebola – The virus that affects a person when he/she comes into contact with infected body fluids. This results in an illness called Ebola hemorrhagic fever
- Zika – A virus spread mainly by mosquitoes, that will trigger the problem of some disorders that occur during birth
- MERS-COV – the virus that causes Middle East respiratory syndrome, a severe respiratory infection that could prove fatal
Treatment for Viral Infections
Viral Infections can be treated in various ways by a physician/doctor who will decide on the right course of treatment to be followed.
Viral Infections are usually treated with:
- Drugs like Acyclovir, famciclovir and valacyclovir are given for viral infections
- Ibuprofen and Acetaminophen are the drugs given for viral fevers
- Protease Inhibitors
- Entry inhibitors
- Influenza Vaccines
Diseases Caused By Bacteria
Bacterial infections form a large part of the bacteria-borne diseases.
- The dangerous bacterial infections:
- E-coli infection – Spread through contaminated water and food.
- Gonorrhoea and Chlamydia are sexually transmitted infections caused by bacteria – Sexually transmitted diseases occur due to these bacterial infections.
- Streptococcus – Causes Strep Throat.
- Salmonella or E-Coli – Causes Food Poisoning.
- Many other diseases caused by various bacteria resulting in infection:
- Urinary Tract Infections – E-coli bacteria that infects the urethra, kidneys or bladder. Difficulty in urination, blood in the urine and itching are the symptoms.
- Respiratory Tract Infections – Caused by air-borne diseases and spread via coughing and sneezing.
- Pneumonia – Lungs get infected through the working of some unknown bacteria.
- Lyme Disease – Caused by tick bites. Tick bite fever is a type of flu that can carry some bacterial infection and transmit the same to humans and some animals, say like dogs through infected tick bites.
Treatment for the bacterial infection
Antibiotics or Antimicrobial drugs are used for treating bacterial infections. One important point to note is that there are two types of bacteria, good and bad.
Bad bacteria must be destroyed and never be allowed to form in the body. Meanwhile, good bacteria should stay in the boy. Antibiotic drugs must not cause bad effects like killing the good bacteria. Hence it is best advised to consult the doctor for his/her professional advice before using antibiotic drugs.