Cancer is also a big newsmaker in this world and cancer awareness is something really worrisome to note. We must not forget that the prime causes of cancer are: poorly maintained environments, bad habits of many people and the overall changing lifestyle. Indeed, some other causes do have a role in the spoil. But the governments of all countries do seriously take the threat of cancer. Their efforts keep bringing good changes but there’s still a long road ahead.
In The Article
Types Of Cancers
If a person tells that something which is most disgusting to do is to list out the types of cancers that exist. The medical community is of the view that over 100 kinds of cancers definitely exist.
Cancer formation on the tissues and cells
- Multiple Myeloma
- Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors
- There are also other tumors like Neuroendocrine tumors, Carcinoid tumors and Germ cell tumors
Cancer on the body organs
Cancerous growth on the body organs is quite frequently heard. Among several cancers, the commonest of cancers which appear on the organs of our body are:
- Lung Cancer
- Breast Cancer
- Colorectal Cancer
- Esophageal Cancer
- Kidney Cancer
- Liver Cancer
- Ovarian Cancer
- Prostate Cancer
- Skin Cancer
Cancer: On the basis of Grade
Grading of cancer is done based on the level of abnormality of the cells that surrounds the tissues. A grading scale of 1-4 is assigned based on the severity of abnormality of the stated cells. The grade will rise for those cells that show more abnormality. So, higher the grade means higher abnormality of such cells. However, well differentiated cells almost look like normal cells with minimal abnormality.
|Grade 1||Cells that show good differentiation with the slightest abnormality|
|Grade 2||Cells that are moderately differentiated with a little more abnormality|
|Grade 3||Badly differentiated cells that show high abnormality|
|Grade 4||Immature cells which are ancient in nature and undifferentiated|
Stagewise classification of cancer
TNM staging of cancer is generally deployed for classifying the cancers based on their stage. The medical abbreviation of TNM stands for:
T – Tumor Size and the extent of its spread
N – Number of lymph nodes with cancer
M – Metastasis
Each letter carries its own meaning and their combination constitutes the term “TNM staging” method.
TNM staging method divides cancer into five stages.
|Stage 0||Cancer that is confined to surface of cells. This stage is also called as carcinoma in-situ|
|Stage 1||Cancer that is present only in the tissue where it started|
|Stage 2||The presence of cancer is only limited to the local area (limited to the place where it originated)|
|Stage 3||Largely localized and regional spread of cancer. Regional spread signifies the cancer formed in nearby lymph nodes, tissues and organs)|
|Stage 4||Advanced level of cancer that is metastatic. Metastatic means the spread of cancer to all parts of the body|
Symptoms Of Cancer
Cancer symptoms will differ based on the nature of cancer (which part of the body or tissue is affected).
Generally, the most noted signs of cancer:
- Changes in the body weight of a person where the latter is not the reason for such change
- Lumpiness or thickening of the skin that can be felt by an affected person
- Noticeable skin changes where the skin appear in red or yellow colours
- Breathing difficulty
- Constant coughing
- Abnormal bladder or bowel habits
- Chronic pain in the muscles or joints
- Eating and digestion discomfort
- Heavy sweating or fever in the night time
- Hoarseness in the voice
- Sudden bleeding or bruise
Causes Of Cancer
There are many causes for the occurrence of various cancers. The causes could be:
Genetic changes also stand as one of the reasons for affecting an individual with cancer. Cancer is caused by some changes in the genes, which regulate the working of the cells, especially when it comes to the latter’s growth and division.
Smoking and chewing of tobacco are more frequent causes of cancers, majorly mouth and lung cancers.
The food that we consume on a daily basis is very much a factor to reckon and high-calorie foods (fats) will cause various cancers. Some appropriate examples are colon cancer, pancreatic cancer, breast cancer and prostate cancer.
People who remain overexposed to the hot sun regularly will be at a high risk of contracting melanoma skin cancer. Melanoma cancer develops from the pigment carrying cells called as melanocytes.
Alcohol addiction will very much cause extensive damage to the liver and stomach. The risks of stomach and liver cancer are largely heard and noted amongst a vast section of masses worldwide.
Continual exposure to chemicals and metals
People who work in chemical factories and high sensitive industries face the big danger of cancer. Workers in cement, glass, chemicals and metals manufacturing industries are the perfect examples. These workers face the big risk of getting cancers like lung, skin, bladder, liver and brain cancers.
Viruses and Infections
Some cancers are acquired through viruses like Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C and Human papillomaviruses (HPV-5 and HPV-11). Liver cancer is largely reported to be acquired by people through the attack of these viruses. People affected with HIV virus could most likely acquire anal cancer, skin cancer, liver cancer and lung cancer.
Treatment Of Cancer
The nature of treatment that is recommended for treating cancer differs based on two main factors:
- The kind of cancer
- The stage of cancer disease
- The general health of the patient
The cancer treatment methods comprise:
The most common therapy that is utilized where cancer cells are removed through radiation. It is also effective in reducing the size of tumours and it is done by radiation technicians. It must be noted that radiation therapy can destroy cancer cells, which could not be possible to remove through surgery. Radiation therapy could be given prior or post surgery.
Under this method, cancer is treated with medications. The stipulated drugs will work towards the destruction of cancer cells or delays their growth.
Mostly, surgery is the adopted method for cancer treatment. Surgery involves in cutting off the affected area and also assures that the surrounding tissues are not left with even a small trace of cancer
Hormonal therapy is a valuable treatment that helps to block the cancerous signals that hormones could send to the human cells. Hormone therapy is an efficient method of destroying cancer cells. It also avoids cancer spread to other body parts. It could also be used along with surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
A form of therapy that is equally good when it comes to killing the cancer cells, which block the immune system. This therapy will strengthen the immune system.
It involves in attacking the growth of cancer cells and prevents further spreading of the same. Targeted therapy uses drugs to target some genes and proteins which are present in cancer cells. It also targets the cells that help the growth of cancer, for example, the blood vessel cells.
Targeted therapy is done by using small molecule drugs and monoclonal antibodies that target and destroy the harmful cells and tumours.
Stem Cell Transplant
A transplant procedure that is set to restore the stem cells of cancer patients. The loss of such stem cells is due to the high dosage of radiation or chemotherapy treatment
Prevention Of Cancer
Get rid of your smoking habit instantly
People who smoke need to understand the ill effects of smoking which will harm them and others. They must immediately leave this habit to avoid complications like lung cancer.
Do not frequently expose yourself to the sun
Overexposure to the sun could pose a big threat to the health of individuals. It is highly likely that the ultraviolet rays from the sun can cause skin cancer.
Try to stop alcohol habits at the earliest possible
Although immediately quitting the alcohol consumption is impossible, efforts should be taken to withdraw gradually.
Follow a healthy diet
A healthy diet also determines your well-being. It is best advised to live on a diet which includes healthy vegetables and fruits. Foods that contain medium protein and whole grains will also be good for your health.
Exercising on a regular basis, if possible daily
Maintain that standard body weight
Healthy eating and routine exercising, if followed by a person will help him/her to maintain an ideal body weight. Avoid overeating since it will cause obesity. Obesity could most likely pave the way for cancer.