Can you imagine a body without bones? Bones are essential for the functioning of the human body. Bones ensure that all the organs of the body are properly connected towards creating the right body structure. There are 206 bones in the human body. Every bone in a person’s body has a unique value.
Bones provide support and protection for the human body. Several bone-related diseases still prevail worldwide. Some examples include arthritis, osteoporosis and tumours.
Formation Of Bones
Firstly, it must be understood that a bone is a very hard organ and a key component of the vertebrate skeleton. Bones are of different sizes and shapes and have both an internal and external structure. Let us now come to know bone formation takes place.
Let’s start right from the baby stage. Most of the bones of a baby are generally soft and flexible and partly made of a substance called cartilage.
Do you know that a baby has about 300 bones in its body during its birth? However, over time as the baby grows, these bones grow together to form the 206 bones, which we know that all adults have.
As the baby grows, the cartilage in the bones will also grow alongside. Over a period of time, the bones will eject the cartilage and become stronger due to the calcium strength. This is a process called as ossification.
Key Bones In The Human Skeletal System
- Pelvic Girdle
Kinds Of Bones
There are five types of bones in the human body, namely:
1. Long bones
The long bones contain a shaft, diaphysis and epiphysis. The bones are lengthy with a lesser width. A few long bones to mention are: tibia, fibula and femur
2. Short bones
They are cube-shaped and have equal length and width. Wrist bones and ankle bones are some of the short bones.
3. Flat bones
These bones have a slender structure. They provide good mechanical protection for the body organs and a wider surface for the various muscles attached to bones.
The cranial bones that protect the brain are an immediate example to specify.
4. Irregular bones
As the very name implies, these bones have a completely different shape when compared with the other bone types. Based on the nature of function they discharge for the body, the shapes of these bones differ. So they offer the mechanical support to the body and even protect our spinal cord (like the vertebrae).
The vertebrae and certain facial bones are some obvious examples.
5. Sesamoid bones
These bones are present in the tendon. They hold the tendon and enable them to stay away from the joint. The patella (knee cap) is a well-known example.
Sutured bones are small bones that are located within sutural joints between the cranial bones are a different category altogether, classable only on the basis of location.
Functions Of Bones
Support – It gives that perfect structural setting for the various muscles and tissues in our body by properly connecting them
Helps our muscles to move – The bones enables our muscles to move freely. The skeletal muscles in our body are attached to bones. The contraction of related muscles makes the bones to move.
Protection – The bones in a human body, like say the skull and rib cage are effective safeguards for the internal organs from injuries
Produces blood cells – It involves the production of blood cells, red and white that are found in the cavities of some bones. The white blood cells in the bone marrow prevent bone infection.
Stores minerals – The bones also store minerals like calcium and phosphorous which are essential for the active functioning of cells in our body
Stores energy – The fats that are stored in the adipose cells of the yellow bone marrow area will act as an energy reservoir